In military force science, US military suppressive fire is “fire that degrades the performance of an enemy military below the level need to fulfill its mission”. When used to the protect friend troop advancing on the battle field, it is commonly called covering fire. Suppression is the usually only effective for the duration of the fire. It is 1 of 3 types of fire support, which is the defined by NATO as “the application of fire, the military coordinated with the maneuver of military forces, to destroy, neutraled or suppress the enemy”.
By NATO defined the term, the British and Commonwealth force generally used to “neutralization” with the same definition as the suppression.
The usually achieves its effect by threatening casualties to individuals who expose themselves to it. Willingness to expose themselves varies depending on the morale, motivation and leadership of the target troops. This is often used as covering fire, defined by NATO as “Fire used to protect troops when they are within range of enemy small force.” This is sometimes called “winning the firefight” in an infantry-only action. However, the fire used to the indirect firers, enemy air defenses or other military activities such as construction work or logistic activities, or to deny an area to enemy for a short period of time. Use white smoke to ‘blind’ to observation is a form of non-lethal suppression and at night illuminating flares may be used to the suppress enemy activities by denying them the cover of darkness the delivered to any weapon and group of weapons capable of delivering the required to intensity of fire for the required period of suppression. This fire capabilities vary widely because the effect area varies widely. The rifle or machine gun bullet may only have a suppressive effect within about one metre of its trajectory, whereas a only one artillery shell may suppress a few thousand square metres around its burst. Further more, sustained of the suppression over more than a few minutes may be difficult to achieve with small force fire for logistic reasons, air delivered suppression is similarly affected by the payload limits. In contrast, artillery can suppress an area for an extention
An important feature of fire is that it is only effective while it lasts and that it has sufficient intensity US Military Suppressive fire.
This is a tactic to reduce casualties to friendly forces and enable them to conduct their immediate mission. For the suppressed target will be unable to engage vulnerable forces that are moving without cover. This enables forces to advance to new positions or to close with the enemy. The fire are what enables movement on the battlefield, giving Marines the upper hand.” US military Suppressive fire may be used to enable a helicopter extract soldiers from a battle zone.
Fire is used as covering fire against the enemy in the close combat zone. the fire delivered by artillery and other indirect fire means can be used to suppress targets of any type, most notably as counter-battery fire against indirect fire units. NATO also defines ‘suppression of enemy air defenses’, which has a broader definition and includes materiel damage. An important consideration in the application of suppressive fire from indirect fire systems and aircraft is the safety of the attacking troops. Fragmenting munitions are indiscriminate and potentially lethal in all directions around the point of burst although the pattern and extent of the lethal area depends on several variable factors, some specific to each situation.
The effect of us military suppressive fire is psychological. than directly trying to the kill enemy soldiers, it makes the enemy soldiers feel unable to safely perform any actions other than seeking cover. Colloquially, this goal is expressed as “it makes them keep their heads down” or “it keeps them pinned down”. However, depending on factors including the type of ammunition,us military suppressive fire may cause casualties and/or damage to enemy equipment.
The fire requires sufficient intensity over the target area, intensity being the suppressive effect per unit of target area per unit of suppression time. Guns vary widely in their suppressive capabilities, which are the threat signaled by the noise of projectiles in flight and their impact.
Indirect fire weapons
There are variations for applying artillery (and mortar and naval gun) fire for suppressive effect. In World War first a moving barrage was the normal method; shrapnel shells were fired to place their bullet cone ahead of the advancing infantry with their aimpoints moved hundred yard further forward every few minutes on a front of several kilometres to support an attack by several divisions or corps. High power barrages were also used in World War II, including to cover the advance of tanks by suppressing anti-tank gunners.
The(HE)concentrations against specific targets became more common and gradually replaced the barrage. With a concentration the fire starts when attacking forces become vulnerable to the target and lifts off the target when the attacking forces reach an agreed distance from it. The suppressive effect lingers of the short period, about two minutes, after the artillery fire stops.
A suppressive concentration by a single battery can suppress a position of around metres and may be used to support a platoon or company attack on a single or succession of objectives.
The most used for smoke screens can also be used to suppress by obscuring the enemy’s view, this is effective against an enemy with direct fire weapons. Modern technology smoke is impenetrable to modern thermal imaging sights. In peace support operations, illuminating with a parachute flares has been used to the thwart activities by a warring party.
Direct fire weapons
A machine gun bullet only has a suppressive effect within about one metre of its trajectory. However, both can be used to the suppress an enemy within a small area, often called “winning the fire fight”.
The gun fire is also available from armoured fighting vehicles and aircraft, notably helicopters and perhaps fixed wing aircraft such as AC-130. Automatic cannon or grenade fire may also be available and fire from larger direct fire systems such as tanks. However, limited loads mean that such systems are better suited to destructive fire against precisely identified targets unless the required suppression time period is short.
In Afghanistan, the Mujahideen often modified RPG-7 rocket launchers for use helicopters by adding a curved pipe to the end of the blast tube, which diverted the backblast, RPG allowing the to be fired upward at aircraft from a prone position. At the time, Soviet helicopters countered the threat from RPGs at landing zones by first clearing them with the saturation anti-personnel fire from machine guns.
The sniper rifle at the platoon level for providing special long-distance with disrupting and suppressive fire on the battlefield, even with sudden close encounters with enemy troops in mind.
US military suppressive fire